In 1898, many black militia members and other citizens volunteered to serve in the Spanish-American War. White officials stirred racial conflict by refusing to put black officers in charge of black troops, including within Virginia’s Sixth Regiment. For this and other reasons, black militias across the South were disbanded after that war. In support of the troops in the service, John Mitchell Jr., editor of the Richmond Planet, repeatedly raised the cry: “No Officers, No Fight!” In response, black officers in Virginia’s Second Battalion, (from the cities of Petersburg and Norfolk), challenged U.S. Army authority by resigning.